The aim of this work was to quantify the extent of the recent decline observed in pine nut and kernel production. For this purpose, we analysed data from the INIA long-term sample plot network for cone and pine nut production in the four main Spanish stone pine regions. Data series for more than a hundred plots since the last century, previous to the arrival of the bug, were compared with the same series after its arrival. Hence, the collapse in kernel per cone yield since can be quantified, the implied main factors identified, and the evidence of L. occidentalis causality implied analysed.
The chestnut gall wasp in the Portuguese region of Terra Fria Transmontana: Three years of biological control
The Dryocosmus kuriphilus insect, chestnut gall wasp, introduced in Portugal in 2014, represents a serious threat to the national production of chestnuts. Over the years,