The pine forests on the sandy plains of inner Spain represent a singular habitat and ecosystem in very poor site conditions. In addition to economic revenue from sustainable biological resources, resin tapping provides other ecological and social benefits from these forests. The present study, resulting from the SUDOE project SustForest, analyses the inclusion of these factors in the assessment of resin resources.
Rational fertilization can improve tree health, growth and potentially benefit pine cone and pine nut production. The reduction of forest exploitation costs without neglecting environmental